Changes in historical, social, economic, political, and technical paradigms can all have an impact on educational paradigms. The framework of education is established in each and every society by focusing on the issue, "What sort of person should an education system raise?" This question is at the heart of all educational systems. This article touches on modernism and postmodernism, which are two of the most prevalent perspectives dominating educational philosophies and instructional practices in recent years. Concepts, in fact, are the foundation of institutions, and institutions give way to systems and organizations. It is necessary to get to the core of the dominant concepts that organize our lives around the meaning and purpose and to assess how these concepts are reflected in educational systems in the context of historical thought change. In this context, the study's goal is to investigate the philosophical and historical factors that underpin modern and postmodern theory, to identify the critical points on which postmodern philosophy is founded, and to underline the implications of all of these in the context of education. After examining the social, cultural, economic, political, historical, and intellectual implications of both methods, educational understandings and teaching practices are discussed from a contemporary and postmodern viewpoint in this study, which is a literature review. The studies of thinkers who influenced the paradigms of modernism and postmodernism are mentioned in the context of these discussions. As a result, it has been observed that the literature is dominated by the view that modernism based on positivism, scientism, and instrumental rationality, or postmodernism based on pluralism, individuality, independence, and the expansion of reality in art or epistemology, cannot guide global or national education processes on their own.
Enlightenment, modernism, postmodernism, philosophy of education.