MAJOR MUSTAFA KEMAL IN ITALIAN WAR (1911-1912) OCCUPATION OF TRIPOLI AND DERNE BATTLES IN THE LIGHT OF ARCHIVES
Italy that started to colonialism striving towards end of 19th century was late on this issue in comparison with many European states. England occupied Egypt, France to Algeria and Tunisia and Italians invaded Tripoli that is the last land of Ottoman in North Africa. This war that started on 29th September of 1911 upon invasion of Tripoli by Italy is also called as 1911-1912 Turco-Italian War (Ottoman-Italian War).
Italians encountered great resistances at where they were trying to land troops in the course of their attempts to occupy Tripoli. Heroism that Ottoman performs against the enemy that was extremely superior with respect to both power and weapon is quite outstanding although Ottoman has limited power in the region.
Although resistance performed against to Italians by military and local tribes since the beginning of the war became successful, it could not be sufficient to remove Italians from Tripoli completely. Italians were superior to Ottoman forces with respect to weapon, ammunition and they were outnumbering. Despite of superiority of Italy, Ottoman gain important successes in Ayn Zara, Zanzur, Kırkkarış and other battles and made an Italian plane crash through opening a fire from the ground.
Mustafa Kemal, together with his several friends going to Tripoli voluntarily likewise, fulfilled the duty given to them ideally in spite of all adverse conditions through reaching initially to Egypt and then Tobruk and Derne with difficulty in 1911. Captain Mustafa Kemal promoted to be a major on the date of 30th November 1911. Mustafa Kemal performed a successful battle in Tobruk on 22nd December and then went to Derne together with Captain Nuri Bey and other friends on 30th December 1911.
Tripoli War, Major Mustafa Kemal, Derne, Italy, North Africa